Dave Lefner: “I couldn’t just stand in front of an easel all day, doing the same thing.”

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Heaven On Earth

Dave Lefner’s one of those wizards that’s so well known – but more importantly so good at their art – that his pieces come up on the first page of results in a Google image search for ‘linocut’.

That really means nothing of course, but what does carry weight is how amazingly well he’s mastered the art of reduction linocuts on a grand scale. His pieces have become so in demand over his 25+ year career that they can command anything up to $4,000 for one edition, and he’s also lucky enough to be able to call linocutting a full-time job.

As if all this wasn’t annoying enough, his work focuses on an element of the world I happen to love – the neon sign. Based in LA, Lefner is at the very heart of the vintage neon scene, it would seem, and he’s also become something of an archivist of these old signs too, rendering them from photos he takes while out scouting for the right shapes, the right shadows.

I’ve written about him before, and always dreamt of owning a Lefner. I’ve also always been in awe of his attention to detail on the many precisely cut enormous retro multi-layered near-photo-real perfectly colour-matched iconic reduction linocuts he makes.
And sells. Actually I’ve rarely felt so inadequate.

So, imagine my delight when he agreed to take time out to be interviewed and was a 120% nice guy to boot. Enough of my warbling – make way for the master…

Look Magazein 62

Come On Vogue

Hey Dave – when did you start linocutting?
I did my first woodcut in a beginners’ printmaking class in my second or third year of college, so 1991. We then moved on to linoleum. Coming from a graphic design background, I fell in love with the clean lines, flat shapes and high contrast of block printing. Soon after I discovered a book about Picasso’s series of reduction linocuts from the 1950s and my fate was sealed. I pored over every page and dedicated myself to learning the technique.

Whose style influences you?
Despite Picasso’s influence, my main influence for subject matter was Stuart Davis, a New York painter from the 1920s. He started abstracting on the urban landscape of NY, including bits of signage and lettering.

My early work shows this direct influence…



When I started taking pictures of the Los Angeles urban landscape for photo reference, I began to notice all the cool neon signs and how I liked them ‘as is’ – ie not abstracted. From then on, I challenged myself to go for realism, though not photo-realism… I wanted to fool people from a distance, but I always wanted them to get up close and see that it was a result of flat colours on top of flat colours, to create the illusion. I always want the process to be as much a part of my art as the subject matter.

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La-La Land

Your prints hark back to a golden era or a faded era – is there something quite sad in the art of the neon sign…
Well, for me it’s nostalgic, which is a bit different to sad. I’ve never been to Europe, so I don’t really know what neon looks like there, but in the US – especially LA and New York – and other major cities (even tiny towns in middle America) a lot of historic neon is protected and is absolutely spectacular! Night or day.

Ironically, even though I’ve done linocuts of many of these signs – especially in the Los Angeles Broadway Theatre district – most of the time I like signs that show their age, and usually they’re small businesses like liquor stores.

But you’re right, my work is heavily influenced by a Golden Age. In America, the 1950s represented a very hopeful, prosperous time. Mid-century architecture, amazing graphic design, furniture, cars designed like rocket ships – I would’ve loved to be 18 in 1955!

Of course, not everything was perfect, but visually they knew what they were doing. And it’s waaaay better than the homogenised crap that’s turned out today. I’m glad those vintage things are being appreciated again. And if my work can help bring that back, so much the better.

Shadows are key too, aren’t they?
Absolutely shadows are key! In fact, I could drive by a sign at a certain time of day, and it doesn’t do anything for me, but then I could drive by again, usually around dusk, and the shadows cast off the neon tubing create what looks like a different language, and I have to turn my car around and snap a picture. When I start thinking about a new piece, the white of the paper (the first stage of carving the block) is the first thing I consider in the composition, followed by what the shadows are doing. Usually the shadows are the very last thing printed, five or six colours into the piece.

night and day i tihnk of you

Night & Day (I Think Of you)

Would it be fair to call you a kind of historian?
Definitely… I realised a long time ago that I’m documenting this city, state and country. So many images that I’ve captured no longer exist. I don’t want to see it all forgotten…

I love what you said once about linocutting being a craft. But do you think printing really actually exists alongside the fine arts?
Haha! Traditional printmaking (not reproductions or digital prints) should have just as much weight as paintings or sculptures in the world of fine art. Now, what fine art is is a whole other discussion. For me personally, the reason I got into reduction linocut was because I was very frustrated by the world of art in the 1990s, and I suppose, up to the present.

In my youth I always knew I wanted to be an artist. I went to any and every art opening, from galleries to museums, taking in what I saw, trying to figure out what my unique contribution would be. Aside from the pioneers of every major movement, I saw a lot of garbage out there. I didn’t understand why skill, talent, and originality no longer mattered any more.

Again, when I discovered Picasso’s reduction linocuts, I knew that this was what I was searching for – a labour-intensive, difficult, lost artform that was going to require my dedication, work ethic, natural artistic ability, and creativity. A process that rivals most paintings or sculptures!

But reduction prints are so tricky, with the registration, number of colours, all that – how long did it take you to master it?
I’ve been doing reduction linocuts for 25 years now and I still wouldn’t say I’ve completely mastered the process, but it took about 15 years to feel like I have the key basics down to do almost any project. Having your own press makes a tremendous difference.

What a Splash

What A Splash!

Did you/do you ever do non-reduction linocuts, or are they your sole obsession?
In college I studied all kinds of things – drawing, painting, sculpture, other forms of printmaking. But reduction linocut has pretty much been my sole obsession my whole career. Well, except for cutting up my own prints and doing collages. I’d like to do more of that in the future…

Are there still things you want to try out with the artform?
Larger scale – it’s all about scale! I’m limited by the size of my press – it’s 30”x50”. I’m trying to remedy this by doing diptychs and triptychs, which I like, but to have unlimited access to a massive press would be my dream…

The Continental

The Continental

What are you working on at the moment?
A diptych of an old thrashed liquor store sign that says, ‘COLDEST BEER IN TOWN’ (I love the low-brow element), a more hip theatre/music venue, the El Rey Theatre, and a star-shaped sign that says Star-lite.

I’m also starting the drawing of massive triptych of the front end of a 1959 red Cadillac. I usually work on three to five pieces at the same time, and this way I can carve all the stages on one day, print everything in the next couple days, then while the oil-based ink is drying for a couple days, I carve the next stages.

Then, as each piece progresses, I can do drawings and tracings for new pieces. I love that the process has so many different aspects, nothing gets old or routine. I couldn’t just stand in front of an easel all day, doing the same thing.

Liquid Joy

Liquid Joy

So what else is new?
I’ve been on Instagram for about a year now, and I’m really enjoying seeing/connecting with all the talented printmakers out there in the world, especially in the UK!

Seriously, most of my faves are Brits. There seems to be a lot of printmaking collectives out there, too, which make it cool to connect with like-minded artists. I’m there as ‘lefner_editions’ and I also have the www.davelefner.com site where I’ll be listing some big events for the Fall.

Finally, are you a genius, or a complete obsessive?
Can’t I be both? I don’t think that’s for me say… though obviously I have to be a bit obsessive. Really, I’m just an artist who found out what he loves to do, trying to enjoy and master the process as best he’s able, and I feel beyond fortunate to make a living at it… that’s all anyone can ask for, right?

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Hannah Forward: “The possibilities for experimenting feel endless”


Absolutely 100% my favourite local linocutter is a lady called Hannah Forward, whose work I first discovered and wrote a bit about two years ago, if memory serves.

Hove-based, and actually working at the shop where I get all my arty supplies, it transpires, I was drawn to her work after seeing a print she’d done of a busy crowd at the cinema.

Hannah nails the colours in her prints, which I guess is what drew me in. She’s also very, very, very good at drawing, working both from memory and her own photographs. Her prints are jam-packed, but never chaotic, and the shades she uses evoke a sort of 1950s/60s fantasy land that really strikes a chord with me. They look sort of old fashioned, but the little details keep them really modern.


I’ve also been enjoying all the work Hannah puts up online and was really pleased to hear she’s been seeing good returns from selling her work too – the links are at the bottom of this interview…


When did you first start linocutting?

I did a short course at Bip printmaking studios in Brighton four years ago. I’d recently got a job working for Lawrence Art Supplies in Hove and was intrigued by linocut as a technique for creating images. I’d worked as an illustrator after graduating from uni and had quite a well honed sense of my own drawing style. Someone I worked with at Lawrence’s suggested I try out linocut as he thought it would really suit my style and be a great way of producing work to potentially sell.


Did you like it from the start?

Absolutely! I loved every minute of the course and took to the process immediately. I loved how simple the technique was to learn, but how the possibilities for experimenting felt endless. I mainly just printed with black ink at first, then wanted to learn how to layer separate colours over the top of each other.

This layering was what really captivated me. The first layered colour linocut I produced was a small piece called Tokyo. It’s a four-layer print, and by the time I’d finished the final layer and saw the image I was utterly hooked. To see the idea I’d had come together so well, but also in a way I kind of didn’t predict, felt kind of magical.

What other linocut artists would you recommend people take a look at?

All the printmakers associated with the Grosvenor School – Claude Flight, Sybil Andrews, Cyril Power, Ethel Spowers and Lill Tschudi are a really inspiring place to start. I remember discovering these kind of prints for the first time, and the modernist subject matter, the intriguing technique of colour layering and incredible sense of movement and energy really struck a chord.


What kind of formal art training do you have?

I have a degree in Graphic Design from Brighton Uni which really helped me develop my interest in unusual composition and colour. I like to paint and draw, usually acrylic or gouache paint on board. It feels so completely different to paint with a paintbrush after a big printmaking stint, and the slowness of an image gradually taking shape in a relatively unplanned way is really pleasing.

Is linocutting a full time job for you?

No, although it’s my job for most of the week. I still work two days at Lawrences, where I’m surrounded by amazing printmaking supplies like the extensive range of Awagami Japanese printmaking papers or the Lawrence relief printmaking inks. There’s so much there to feel inspired to try out, it really is a pretty incredible day job to have as a printmaker!

What sort of printing set up do you have?

I print at my home studio in Hove. When I moved in I chose the biggest, brightest room as a dedicated space to create work in. I have an A3 sized bookpress, ball drying racks hanging from the ceiling and a large work bench. I also have large shelves for paper and print storage.

What inks and paper do you prefer?

I like the Lawrence oil-based relief inks, and usually use Japanese printmaking paper for my work. I like how the ink soaks in to actually become part of the paper. I’m always up for trying out new inks and paper because it’s really fun to see what a difference this makes to the final results.

What sort of things inspire your prints?

I’m inspired to create work where the idea is executed in a very bold and simple way, but also in an original, new way that I haven’t seen done before. I think that’s my main source of inspiration – create work that’s different to what’s been made or is being made already.

It’s this newness that really excites me to create. A new colour combination or composition or subject matter I haven’t ever seen as a print before. No one else will think of these ideas and create this work – so it’s got to be me!

How relevant is being from Brighton to your work?

I’m originally from South East London but have lived in Brighton on and off for about 10 years and absolutely consider it my home now. There’s a real sense of freedom for the individual, and the city’s packed with artists, musicians, freelancers and small businesses. People who perhaps don’t feel they fit in other places have found their home here. The overall attitude seems to be ‘don’t judge – everything’s acceptable’. I think this very Brighton sense of celebration for the individual has definitely found its way into my work.


How do the prints you make from memory differ to those you work up from photos?

Ideas that just come into my mind are usually inspired by quite a pure feeling I’ve had about something I want to try to capture. I want to get across the essence of that feeling in the simplest way I can, so every line, shape and colour matters. When I’m using photographs it’s more free and experimental. I don’t really know what I’m aiming for – I just do lots and lots of drawing and collage them together until the final design reveals itself. It’s more like painting, in a way.

What tips would you give to any printers looking to sell work?

Have a variety of different print ideas at different sizes and prices so you can see what’s popular. What sells might surprise you. Keep creating new work all the time to keep things fresh, keep the ideas rolling. Use social media (daily if possible) to attract attention to what you’re doing – people really are genuinely interested. Direct your followers to your online shops or exhibitions, let them know what you’re up to. Start a mailing list.

Selling on Etsy for me has generally been quite slow and sporadic, although it’s picked up a little more lately thanks to regular posts on Instagram (and having a direct link to my Etsy shop on my Instagram profile – top tip). Etsy is generally quite gift focused and trend-oriented, so whether it’s the best platform for artists to sell their work online is debatable. However, I know there are artists and printmakers that sell very well on Etsy so it is totally possible.

Artfinder has been incredible. I’ve now sold over 250 prints since joining a year ago and posted them to people all over the world. It’s been a really exciting first year, and I can’t really emphasise enough how rewarding it’s felt and how encouraging the people at Artfinder have been. They’ve helped feature me and my work at seemingly every opportunity, and basically become this perfect link between my work and people who want to buy it. I just can’t wait to see what happens in 2017.


Do you find relief printing therapeutic?

I find all creativity very therapeutic. I think you reach a sort of meditative state while making. Whether I’m drawing or carving out lino or painting or working out a new idea, I enjoy that feeling of calm slowness as you think about nothing else except focusing on what you’re bringing into existence.

Have you any other exhibitions coming up?

Not yet, but I have ambitions to team up with a painter I know and have a group show together in Brighton this year. Watch this space! I’d also love to try opening the doors to my Hove house for the Artist Open Houses in May one year in the not too distant future. I live with two other artists so this is a really fun prospect for all of us.



Link yourself up!
Hannah’s Etsy shop and Artfinder shop are right there. Or you can always see more at her website.

Paul Davis: “The whole idea is to get people interested and creating their own prints…”



Old Seadog

If you’re just starting out in relief printing, and consider this – everyone is at some point – then you might be confused as to the best way to go about it. There’s a gazillion different types of ink, paper, equipment and, more annoyingly, opinions on what should and shouldn’t be done around the medium.

So a website like www.drawcutinkpress.com is all the more welcome, somewhere that really holds the hand of its visitors, be it for beginners’ tutorials and links to in-person workshops, and everything from tool sharpening guides and debates on which papers yield which results.

But behind the site lies a devilishly skilled printmaker – Paul Davis – who’s worked tirelessly to promote printing over the past few years. Originally an illustrator, he explains on his site that he wanted to “create a resource that helps anybody who wants to give lino printing a try.”

Which is blooming heartening, right? In this day and age, especially. So as is the norm here now at PP, I asked Paul to pull up a digital pew and answer the usual round of linocut related Qs…



You offer a lot of advice on your blog –presumably you’d urge anyone to have a go with linocutting?

Absolutely, I set up the blog because I didn’t think there were that many good online resources out there to help people starting out with the artform. The whole idea is to get people interested and creating their own prints. I made loads of mistakes when I was learning, and I wanted to share these as well as some of the shortcuts and tips I’d discovered along the way.

Have you had a lot of response to your tutorials and guides?

Yes – I get emails every week pretty much, which I always try to answer. It’s a nice two-way relationship, as the questions people ask often spark new ideas for articles to add to the blog. Hopefully it’ll keep growing as a resource that’s free for people to explore and be inspired by. 

When did you start printing?

A couple of years ago, and as a hobby to reconnect with the process of being an image maker and getting my hands dirty. I started out as an illustrator, then became a graphic designer, a project manager and now I co-run my own business. I love that part of my life but I find myself writing proposals and answering emails more than I do being creative in the ways I like to be.

I thought I’d use linocutting as a way to unwind, so I picked up a pretty cheap set of chisels and some lino and started carving away. It was a bit frustrating at the time as the tools I bought weren’t very good, but the process was great and exactly what I was missing. I think the first attempt at a print I did was of a medieval knight that didn’t work out well because I didn’t know the medium. But then I did a few Moby Dick scenes before starting to look at some old Ray Harryhausen creature characters as inspiration. That was about the same time I decided to start Draw Cut Ink Press.


Trojan Centaur

Which other print artists influence you?

The first artist whose work I became aware of was Edward Wardsworth, from the Vorticist movement, who did some great images of battleships being painted with Dazzle camouflage. Christopher Nevinson is an ongoing and great inspiration as well as other British artists like Paul Nash. I intend to start doing some articles on my website around these guys so that I can share with my website visitors some of the artists who always inspire me.

There are other artists whose work just astounds me at times to, and the most notable name that comes to mind is Lynd Ward. He published some great woodcut novels such as Gods’ Man (1929), Madman’s Drum(1930), Wild Pilgrimage (1932) and Prelude to a Million Years (1933). Otto Nückel, Giacomo Patri and Jacques Hnizdovsky are all worthy of a mention also.

The contemporary artists I really love have largely been discovered through Instagram. Mazatl from Mexico is producing some of the greatest work I’ve seen recently, and I’ve two of his prints permanently on my desk reminding how high the bar has been set. I love the detail in his work and the ideas behind his pieces.

Brian Reedy is another great guy, I love all his movie inspired linocut prints. Other names that come to mind are Nick Morley, Richard Wells, Cally Conway, Alexis Snell, Killchoy, Carlos Palomares, Scott Minzy, and more. There’s loads of amazing talent out there.


Smoking Skull

Can you tell me a little bit about your printing set up?

I’m not far off a bedroom printer. I have a desk that I work at most days after work and at any other spare moments I get. That’s one of the great things about lino printing, you don’t need to have some massive set up like screen printing. All you need is a piece of lino, some tools, ink, a roller, some paper and a wooden spoon – you could get cracking with that kind of setup, in fact that’s exactly what I started with!

My tools and equipment has expanded over time, so now I have my trusty Pfeil carving tools, a set of Japanese rollers, loads of inks, various barens (although few are actually more effective than a wooden spoon) and a book press.

I’ve also got access to an etching press at Bainbridge Studio in London which I love to use, and that also gives me access to a really nice studio where I can spread things out a bit. What I tend to do is carve away at home and run off some test prints until I’m happy with the design, then head down to the studio.



What inks and paper do you favour?

I like to use oil-based inks as it suits the fine detail I like to achieve. My local art shop is called Intaglio Printmakers and they produce their own relief inks, which I find very good.

I’ve tried a few different papers but at the moment I’m pretty much sold on 145gsm Zerkall. It’s a German mould made paper that has great texture and picks up all the details better than anything else. I also always have a pad of Japanese Hosho paper on the go to, that’s a close second place I reckon.

Can you explain some of the themes in your work?

I like to pick up themes and run with them for a little while so I can create a mini series of prints. I did a series of prints based around the characters of Ray Harryhausen movies like Jason and The Argonauts, Clash of the Titans and Sinbad. I used to love those movies as a kid growing up and they really inspired me to work as much as possible in the creative industries.

At the moment I’m really enjoying working on a series of prints based around old portrait photos of soldiers from the Crimean War, and I’ve a book full of other ideas stacking up.


Crimean War Comrades 1

You also largely seem to work in black and white – do you prefer this?

I think there are two reasons for this. Firstly, I love the graphic bold strength that you can achieve with a well balanced black and white print. I remember seeing some Ex Libris prints that somebody had framed up once and thought that they looked amazing. They were so strong and confident.

Secondly, I think that by the time I’ve got a print done in back and white I’m usually itching to start another one, rather than thinking of ways to add a second or third colour block. I have a few prints that I intend to add colour to, hopefully 2017 will be the year I find the time to go back and finish them off with a spot colour, That would really make some of them sparkle.

Do you work in any other mediums?

I’m pretty much just a lino printer. I enjoy the process of sketching my design onto the lino and then carving it out so much I can’t think of another one I want to try right now. Maybe woodblock printing is a natural progression next?

What’s next for you?

I’m thinking about setting up a regular meet up in London for UK lino printers. It would be great to meet some of the people whose work I admire, have a beer and talk about the artform with others who are as mad for it as I am. If that takes off then maybe an exhibition after that. Grow the empire basically, until I can pack in the day job and just Draw Cut Ink Press my days away!


To buy one of Paul’s prints head HERE.

Ieuan Edwards: “Cost and space aren’t barriers to getting started with printing…”

Each time I go to cut something, or even if I’m just sketching ideas, I’m usually thinking “How can I make these more detailed?” or “Is that the right level of detail for a print?” – basically it drives me mad.

But there’s an artist called Ieuan Edwards in Kent who takes this to the extreme, creating linocuts that frankly have no right to be quite as detailed as they are. They actually make me quite angry with their fine details and line work. The guy is obviously some kind of genius.


Four Calling Birds

So I asked him about all this in a vain attempt to get a shortcut into that kind of skill – but the old adage remains I guess – talent takes time…


Hi Ieuan – how do you get your work SO DAMN INTRICATE?

Thank you! Good (sharp) tools, good light, a steady hand, my new reading glasses, a decent playlist and enough time to enable me to get in ‘the zone’.

I’m really keen to try to emulate authentic textures in my work and often only start with a very basic drawing on the lino, letting the tools find their own way. So the intricate marks suggesting a bony texture on one of my skull pieces won’t have been drawn beforehand, they’re made by experimenting with different sizes and shapes of cutting tool.

A lot of my work is printed in reduction from one piece of lino, with some carved away between successive colour layers, so accurate registration is a key concern. My favourite registration method involves pins and tabs, using the brilliant kit produced by Termes Burton.


Lewis Merthyr Winding Gear

How did you first get into printing?

Like many others, I recall a fairly joyless linocut project in art class at school – blunt tools, crumbly brown lino and a teacher who clearly didn’t respect the medium – and the thought of printing didn’t really cross my mind again until 2012 when I picked up a starter kit.

I’d been painting pretty unsuccessfully for a few years and felt I needed a change. I realised quite quickly that I’m a printmaker at heart and I haven’t looked back.  I’m not a “completer/finisher” by nature, so the fact there are a number of discrete processes associated with making prints – and I can have a number of projects running concurrently, each at a different stage – fits my natural mental state!


Stag Beetle

What’s your printing set up?

I work from a home studio. I have a Blue Boy book press I use for smaller prints or for quickly proofing or trying out ideas. When it’s time to pull out the big guns I turn to my etching press, a converted vintage clothes mangle and probably my favourite ever eBay purchase.

In addition, a couple of months ago I picked up a Print Frog from the Iron Frog Press folks over in Dallas. It’s a baren made from a single piece of blown glass and I’ve enjoyed using it so much that my presses are currently lying dormant. I’ve had other barens in the past, but this thing takes printing by hand to a new level and it’s a beautiful object.

Are you in the lucky position of working with printing for a living in any way, or is it purely a free time thing?

I sell prints through a number of channels – face-to-face at art fairs, through gallery shows and online. I’ve sold work to corporate clients and have been lucky enough to pick up some interesting commissions, including album covers, greetings cards and work for interior design schemes in pubs and restaurants. It’s by no means enough to justify going full time but I’d like to think I’m heading in that direction.


Mari Lwyd 2

Do you have any professional or academic print training?

No, other than the joyless experience at school…

Who are your printing influences?

Eric Ravilious and Edward Bawden are the first to come to mind in terms of their design prowess and their technical chops. I’d hope that some of my starker monochrome work demonstrates my fondness for the heartbreaking work of Kathe Kollwitz.

I also enjoy the naive and natural style of Elwin Hawthorne from the East London Group and I’d happily devote an entire room to Billy Childish (donations accepted!).

Other contemporary favourites include each of the folks below me in this blog (particular shout to Mat Pringle) and other stars to look out for on social media include Ann Lewis, Richard Wells and Nick Wonham.

What other mediums do you work in?

This is it for the moment, I have way too much ink stockpiled to consider other avenues.

What paper and ink do you favour?

Somerset Satin 300g and Lawrence’s linseed relief ink. Oil based inks are notoriously difficult to clean up, which can put people off, but this stuff is a breeze with a dash of vegetable oil and washing up liquid.


Silvery Moon

Colour is used very sparingly in your work…

Well, I’m still learning, having only been at this for a few years, and my confidence with colour is growing. I’m planning some larger pieces at the moment which promise to expand my palette.

Do you think relief printing is for everyone?

Absolutely. Cost and space aren’t barriers to getting started with printing on the kitchen table and there are a number of great starter packs out there, as well as a variety of soft cutting surfaces for beginners.  Tools need to be sharp so I’d suggest a hand guard to avoid punctured fingers, at least to begin with.


So there you go. Ieuan has a solo show planned for 31st May to 7th June, at the York Street Gallery in Ramsgate – tentatively called “Well Impressed”.

And if you want to buy buy buy some of his work, or commission him to print all over your house or pub, get thee sharpish over to the Black Gold Press page, HERE.


Ieuan signing a print of his which is on the sail of a boat – of course!

Aidan Saunders: “It’s how I like to show the images that dance around in my head…”


image1Getting your art out to the people is hard, and actually retaining an audience even harder. You know that. But there’s a guy called Aidan Saunders who’s absolutely nailing it, and all by doing things his own way too.

A devotee of print, he’s commandeered a VW Caddy van, then fully decorated it, and driven it round the country promoting the medium to anyone that wants to be enlightened.

Being a lonely bedroom printer, this all-encompassing approach seemed just amazing to me. Where do you get the sheer brassneck to go about such a strategy?

Aidan says he started linocutting at the end of his uni course after not quite getting the enjoyment levels he wanted from fine drawing (at which he is also accomplished, I might add). “It took time for me to realise that it was how I should make work,” he explains.

The idea of the van came next.


“I sold a lot of prints at my end of year show and thought – ah ha! I can sell prints – and over a breakfast with a lecturer I had an idea of travelling the UK in my grandad’s caravan. I got onto a Ba and I suddenly had funding, but my grandad wouldn’t give me his caravan. So I managed to buy my van from a friend who I used to help out as a painter and decorator, for £300,” Aidan explains.

Fully decorated up, the plan for the van was then to take it out on the road. But where?

“Well, another reason I came up with the wagon was because I wanted to advertise my illustration work. I planned a tour of gallery spaces and places I could imagine my work being exhibited, and it always astounded me that people would invite and hope that magazines or galleries would come and see them for their final show. I thought that was quite cheeky and that you should go to them… plus, you can fit more stuff in a van, including a heavy cast iron book press.”


Responses have been “dumbfounded”, with Aidan having now toured the country since 2014, visiting such far flung places as Hastings, London, Kendall and Norwich, along with jaunts to Utrecht to promote the medium of printing.


Down In Mexico

“I’m not sure why printing is so important to me. I guess what is important is that it’s a way to promote my own interests. I love print, I love the work that goes into it and the energy it can give to a piece. But really it’s a means to an end. It’s how I like to show the images that dance around in my head…”

For more information or to book the wagon, and of course to shop, visit Aidan’s site. Probably Prints is particularly excited about an exhibition Aidan has been involved in which is coming to Brighton in 2017, based on the He-Man children’s TV series, which was previously exhibited at the Colours May Vary bookshop in Leeds. Watch this space.




Jeremy Speck: “Printmaking should be about being part of a community”


Fig & Jug

Colour was the first thing that struck me about printmaker Jeremy Speck’s work. You could say it smacked me in the face. It was bold, but somehow subtle too. And it seemed to come from a just forgotten era, but at the same time one that was much more classical than that. And that was before I even looked at all his dancing shapes.

Jeremy works largely in the abstract form (and I think I like these best), but he also covers still life, across both relief and screenprinting. What’s key is that he manages to be more than just a composite of a list of impressive influences, leading to works with a bounce of their own – they look fun, like the kind of prints you’d invite to a party.

In addition, he runs courses and exhibits regularly, and recently undertook a project to print a series of work on 20cm square boards. And I love nothing more than a self-imposed restrictive project, so I spoke to him about all this and more…


Hi Jeremy. Colour seems paramount in your prints, especially with the abstracts – so how much experimentation goes into this?

Hardly any really, as I tend to work instinctively when it comes to colour – which is why I probably end up using the same colours quite a lot. Weirdly, sometimes the colour is chosen because the ink is easier to work with (I love the ‘feel’ of yellow ochre when it’s rolled, so that turns up a lot). I do lean towards a mid-century palette, but I also seem to be quite fond of the 70s with oranges and yellows!



Can you remember when you first started printing?

The first linocut I ever made was on a printmaking evening course at Somerset College, about 12 years ago. It was of a lizard and I made the classic lino error of going around the whole image with the tool as if it was a pencil, creating the white line outline. When I teach the lino course at Double Elephant in Exeter I always keep this memory fresh as it’s the classic mistake people make if they’re used to drawing – don’t treat your tool as a pencil! Having said that, I now use the white line quite a bit, but now it’s deliberate!

Do you have any formal art training?

Not really. I did a short course at Northern Print Studios way back in the late 90s and then an evening course at Somerset College for a few weeks in about 2003. Other than that it’s been trial and error and studying other people’s work. In fact, when I run printmaking courses in linocutting I urge people to spend as much time as possible trying to figure out how other printmakers have made their work, how they achieved an effect or a mark.

Of course, Double Elephant Print Workshop, a members’ open access print workshop in Exeter, has been invaluable in providing access to equipment and a community of other printmakers. Without them I doubt I would have persevered, at least not on the scale I have!

Which print artists influence you?

The first ‘proper’ linocutter (as opposed to artists who dabbled in it) who fascinated me was Edward Bawden – more for his technical abilities than anything else. Of course, it’s hard not to be influenced by Angie Lewin and other contemporary linocutters, who are the inheritors of Bawden.

My favourite printmaker is actually Peter Green, whose relief and stencil abstracts are a joy, and we own more of his prints than anyone else. Another fantastic contemporary lino artist is Michael Kirkman, who seems to be influenced by Hockney and Bawden, but is wrestling the medium away from its sometime twee subject matter.

The artist I return to when I need to recharge my create batteries is Ben Nicholson as you can’t go wrong with circles and squares, although having just come back from the Abstract Expressionist exhibition at the Royal Academy I’m reacquainting myself with their prints through the superb book by David Acton – The Stamp of Impulse: Abstract Expressionist Prints.

What was the thinking behind the Twenty Twenty series?

Mostly it was practicality. I like my abstracts to be square, probably because that stops you seeing it as a landscape, and my home press is most efficient when printing at this size. They were mostly experimental, and I liked the idea that they were a series with nothing in common other than the size and the fact that they were abstracts. A couple worked really well as images but most didn’t, although the ones that sold best were the ones I didn’t think worked very well, so what do I know!



What wood do you use to print on?

Printing on wood is fun, but it has to be flat, so it tends to be plywood. Registration is also an issue, so my prints on wood tend to be monoprints where the plate and the wood are attached throughout the whole printing process. A couple of these are to my mind the best linocuts I’ve ever done, but I doubt anyone else would agree. There’s something about them being objects rather than pictures that really appeals, something Ben Nicholson also did, painting abstracts on boxes and pieces of wood.



How do you go about preparing for exhibitions?

I’m a bit rubbish at trying to get exhibitions – in fact, I rely on Open Studios and the odd art boot fair to sell work. Gallery commission makes selling prints at a reasonable price very difficult, also the logistics of getting work delivered and returned, then framing – all these things cost.

Can you tell me a little bit about your printing set up?

As mentioned, I mostly print at Double Elephant in Exeter as they have a beautiful Albion Press (purchased from the Slade) that’s always a thrill to use, as well as a range of rollers. However, most of my traditional lino landscapes and still life work is done on my home press in my ‘studio’ (a couple of old police cells in my house, which is an old police station). The advantage of this is that I can be a lot subtler with the pressure, the disadvantage is the restriction in size.

What inks/paper do you use?

I’m a big fan of Hosho paper, an affordable and very robust Japanese paper that gives a lovely warmth to the finished print. I also love Somerset as it takes the ink into the weave of the paper. Other than that I use good quality cartridge paper.

My ink is usually linseed oil-based as the colours are more robust, but it tends to be what you’re used to, printmakers are creatures of habit!

Do any man-made things ever inspire your prints?

Not directly, but I’ve become increasingly fascinated by texture and contrast since taking up printmaking. Everything I see is constantly being assessed for its suitability as a linocut or print. In other words, could it be rendered into shapes and restricted to three colours!



What other mediums do you work in?

I’ve recently become interested in screenprinting, which to my mind is the closest other medium to linocutting in that you are working with layering flat colours and shapes. I was becoming quite frustrated with my inability to make truly spontaneous marks with lino, and wanted to explore a more painterly approach to printmaking, so I turned to screenprinting. I can work faster and more intuitively using this medium, but it does lack the intimacies of carving a lino.

Would you urge anyone to have a go with linocutting?

I certainly would. In fact, I’d urge them to come on one of my courses! Actually, in all seriousness I would really encourage anyone who fancies having a go to locate your nearest print workshop and enrol on a course as you’ll not only learn valuable techniques but also a huge amount from the other course participants and workshop members. Printmaking’s not (just) about being stuck in your artist’s garret, it should also be about being part of a community of other printmakers.


Lapwings Over Lincolnshire



For more information about Jeremy’s work and courses, visit his website HERE, and do follow him on that there twitter too…

Gail Brodholt: “London’s such a huge place you could find enough subject matter to last you several lifetimes”



When I lived in London, I spent a bundle of time travelling around the city on trains and tubes and buses, like anyone, and to be honest, I enjoyed these little pockets of time spent ‘forced idling’, waiting for destinations to arrive.

I also liked the look and feel (and even smell) of some of these means of getting around, and soon noticed other cities I visited had their own unique slant on the transportation thing, identities of their own, distinct from London in their own way.

So when I came across printmaker/painter (and Fellow of the Royal Society of Printmakers no less) Gail Brodholt, I was doubly delighted. Her prints are so evocative of travelling in the city of London (and nowadays beyond that), executed with such a compositional talent.

They seem sort of ageless and modern all at once, and so, as is increasingly my wont, I sent her some questions about her work, and what it means to be – comparatively speaking – a printing bigwig.

As ever, I was overjoyed to even get a response…

Can you remember when you first started printing?

When I was at art school studying Fine Art, the first year of the degree consisted of a term in the painting studio, a term in the sculpture studio and a year in the printmaking studio. As you can imagine, a term is not really long enough to take in so many complicated printmaking processes and I was rather overwhelmed.
However, I did have a lot of fun with various types of relief printing. In the end, I decided to specialise in painting for the rest of my degree. When I left further education I carried on painting but I took up printmaking – in particular linocutting – and never looked back!

Which print artists influence you?
Edward Bawden, Michael Rothenstein and Picasso.


Road To Nowhere

Can you tell me a little bit about your printing set up?
I work in a studio right by the Thames Barrier in Woolwich, South East London. It’s in a complex of 300+ units called Thames-Side Studios. I have an Albion press made in 1841 which I’ve had for many years.

What inks/papers do you use?
Somerset textured soft white 300gsm, and Lawrence’s oil-based relief printmaking inks.


Any Given Saturday

Would you urge anyone to have a go?
No, I don’t need the competition! Seriously though, linocutting is not a difficult process to master. You need very little equipment compared to other forms of printmaking such as etching – you don’t even need a press as you can burnish the back of the paper with a spoon. You really just need lino, a couple of cutting tools, a roller and some paper and ink. You can even do the whole thing on your kitchen table.
Once you get hooked, you may find using an open access print studio such as the Thames Barrier Print Studio may be useful, but I’d definitely encourage anyone to try it.

Can you elaborate on how your work in painting enhances your printing work?
Sometimes I get an idea and I feel it works better as a painting and sometimes it works better as a linocut. It is not always a case that a particular subject matter will work well in either medium – it just depends on what I have in mind as a finished piece of work. Occasionally I’ll do both.


Snow In The Suburbs

Your composition, that of space and relationship of things on the page, is very impressive – do you think that comes from the painting side perhaps?
No, to be honest I think it’s the other way round. I think the key to a good linocut is structure – what I like to call the bones of a print. It’s quite a graphic medium insofar as it’s hard to get much texture or tone. Also, you’re cutting into a block of lino and there’s not much scope for fine detail. Therefore you have to cut out a lot and it forces you to consider carefully what you can and can’t leave out. With painting, it’s a more flexible medium and you can get much closer to what you’re aiming for, without having to make the same sort of compromises you do in linocutting.

How do you handle the ‘selling yourself’ side of being an artist? Do you find it easy to do art fairs, etc, or would you rather just work?
Like most artists, I’m drawn to a fairly solitary life. I like working on my own in the studio and I like making my own decisions. So as a consequence, mastering that side is actually quite difficult. In an ideal world I’d hand over that whole side of things to someone else!
The upside of working in today’s environment is that you don’t have to rely entirely on the gallery system. Obviously it’s really important to work with galleries as that’s where people will be able to see your work in the flesh. But there’s a lot of scope for promoting yourself and your work by social media and, more importantly, your website.
I find Twitter, Facebook and Instagram very useful for reaching out directly to people who enjoy your work and, to be honest, it’s a way of being part of a community which you don’t get working away quietly in your studio.
In terms of directly selling your work at art fairs, that also can be a valuable tool although the experience of talking to potential customers for three or four days can be daunting.


From The Motorway

Can you talk about the role of transport that inspires your prints? Why’s London such a key element?
I like to portray the world that I live in and that happens to be London. If I lived in another part of the country, that would be my subject matter. In any case, London’s such a huge place you could find enough subject matter to last you several lifetimes without running out.
I suppose when it comes to the tubes and the trains – and my new passion, roads! – I like the idea of being on a journey. You never really know what’s going to happen as you travel from one place to another – mostly nothing, obviously – but there’s always a chance of the unexpected happening and it’s always interesting to be suspended from your normal responsibilities and commitments while you sit on a train looking out of the window.

Finally, what does being a Fellow of the Royal Society of Printmakers actually entail?
Being a Fellow entails submitting a portfolio of eight prints to the election committee, which meets every year. If you’re lucky enough to be elected, it allows you to use the initials RE after your name and entitles you to exhibit at every printmaking exhibition held at the Bankside Gallery on London’s Southbank, which is run by the RE and the Royal Watercolour Society in partnership.


For more information and to buy prints, visit Gail’s website. Gail is also on Twitter (@gailbrodholt) and if you want to see more on a regular basis, sign up for her newsletter here.


Nick Morley: “Linocut is a very democratic medium…”


Whenever you search for linocut or printing in one of the many social media pages, or google it or whatever it is the kids do nowadays, there’s one name that comes up again and again – Nick Morley, aka Linocut Boy.

Here’s someone who has his fingers in practically all the printing pies – from running studios, teaching the medium, blogging, and this year, writing a great book about the artform itself (Linocut for Artists & Designers).

I had hoped to speak to Nick about the work he does in promoting linocut some time ago, but due to a series of staggeringly inept moves on my part, it never came to be – until this very week, when I eventually got through to the right address and Nick replied immediately. Goal!!

So, here we go – an insight into the world of linocut done the right way. Hard work sure, but a way of life I think all amateur printers dream of if they’re honest. But for Nick, it’s become a reality…


When did you first start linocutting?

My mum had a set of cutters and a roller from when she was a girl but I didn’t know what to do with them. I made one cut of a scarecrow on my foundation course, but I didn’t get into it properly until a couple of years after I finished my degree. I was doing a project on the first space tourist and I wanted to make some prints that looked like Soviet posters.

Did you like it from the get-go?

No, I found it frustrating at first. I couldn’t get a clean line and I didn’t really understand what was possible with coloured inks, rather than just black. I was making very crude typographic designs. Once I got the hang of using the tools it got easier, and finding the right paper/ink combination was crucial.


What other linocut artists, either modern or olde worlde, would you recommend people take a look at?

All the artists featured in my book, but especially AGUGN, an artist from Indonesia who makes really complex and colourful works which are nonetheless playful and fun. He works with a lot of limitations in terms of space and materials but is really ingenious and inventive in finding solutions to problems. He makes his own paper and his really large works are made up of smaller panels that fit together. Historically I like Albrecht Durer, Thomas Bewick, Posada and Ulisse Aldrovandi, although they mostly worked with wood.

I also have a small collection of Russian linocuts made for children in the 1970s and 80s which were produced for a mass market. I know very little about this tradition and would like to research it some more. They’re very strange – almost surreal – and look like they were carved very quickly so they have a real energy.


What kind of formal art training do you have – do you work in other mediums?

I did a BA in Fine Art at Sheffield Hallam University. I also took a number of printmaking classes after I graduated, working alongside other artists at East London Printmakers for ten years. As well as prints on paper I make artist’s books and I use screenprinting and letterpress in a lot of my work. I’m starting to get back into oil painting too, which I’ve dabbled with all along. The directness of oil paint is a nice contrast to the processes of printmaking, and you can change things you don’t like very easily, so you can be more spontaneous.


Is linocutting a full time job for you now?

I run Hello Print Studio in Margate, teach workshops around the country and in Italy and I take on commissioned illustration work when it comes along. Most of it revolves around linocut but I’m not actually cutting lino every day.


One of Nick’s covers for the BFI.

You’ve always seemed very keen to promote the linocut medium – why’s this?

I really love it as a medium and I think it’s underestimated by a lot of artists because they had a negative experience of it at school. In fact, there are loads of great artists using linocut in different and new ways. I want to help give people the right information so they can get started in the right way, and not give up through frustration.

Linocut is a very democratic medium because it’s cheap and easy to do at home, which appeals to me. All you need for printing is a wooden spoon, although having a press will enable you to do more.


Have the uninitiated been responsive to the medium?

There’s a big interest in linocut right now, especially in illustration. If you walk into any bookshop you’ll see linocut covers. There’s also a big group of people who want to take it up as a hobby or start their own line of greetings cards or whatever. People who come on my workshops have usually done a little bit at school and they’re amazed by what’s possible. By and large they go home enthused and keen to continue.

Would you urge anyone to get into linocutting?

Yes, but it takes practise and you won’t master it immediately. I’ve been doing it for nearly 15 years and I’m still learning! If you have an impatient temperament or you want instant results, it’s maybe not for you. But if you enjoy problem solving, using your hands and taking your time over things you could find yourself hooked.

What sort of printing set up do you have?

I’m very lucky, being part of Resort Studios in Margate, where I run Hello Print Studio. It’s a beautiful space with huge windows and high ceilings. Over the last five years I’ve built up a collection of presses and other equipment which I share. The public can also hire the facilities on Wednesdays.

We’ve just upgraded our etching press so you can now print up to 80x120cm. We also have facilities for screenprinting, etching and letterpress. I pretty much have everything I need now, but one day I hope to own an Albion press.


What inspires your prints?

Old photos, interesting stories and characters, old magazines and newspapers. I’m making an ongoing series of cowboy prints at the moment. I’m interested in man’s relationship with nature, how he tries to control it and understand it.

I’m also fascinated by human behaviour, cultures and traditions around the world – the ways we’re different and yet the same.

Do you ever get ‘printer’s block’?

Yes, sometimes for months on end. At these points I like to look back at old drawings in my sketchbooks and see if there is anything of interest. Sometimes I find things I can’t remember drawing.

I also like to work in series, this releases some of the anxiety about what to do next. The older I get, the more I try to accept that nothing I make will be perfect and it’s better to just get on with making stuff.

When the idea for your book first take shape?

I’ve been writing a blog for years and I was approached by Crowood Press to write a printmaking book. I suggested I just make it about linocut, and they agreed.

Is it instructional, historical, or just a collection of sweet prints?

I hope it’s both instructional and inspirational. It contains information on materials and equipment, how to carve and print and a whole load of other stuff like framing and printing on fabric.

It has step-by-step projects for the reader to try and is illustrated with examples of my work and that of other artists and designers from around the world. The history section is very short – I’m thinking if there is another book in me it will be a history of linocut.

Is it a book for established printer or beginners, or both?

It’s aimed at all levels. It starts with the basics but covers some more unusual ways of working, like printing on ceramics, lasercut lino and printing with a steamroller. The feedback I’ve had from my readers so far has been overwhelmingly positive, which makes the three years it took to write worthwhile.

Presumably it would make a very nice Christmas present?

Yes, but I’d personally prefer chocolate please.


For more information go here for the book and much more, and here for workshops or to order prints and ting.

Richard Shimell: “The theatre of cutting, inking and revealing the print gives you so much…”




Since I started printing I’ve realised mine and others’ prints seem to come from the things that surround us.

For me, living in a city, that’s largely been slogans, goofy pictures from old books, themes of the drudgery of the workplace and whatnot.

But for printmaker Richard Shimell, who lives down in the West Country, the art comes from a more natural place than that, and yes, it’s a beautiful one too. Many of his works have that quality of making the viewer do a double-take – “whaaa, that’s not a photo?” – while others have a graphic edge, with colours that suggest the landscapes that inspired them perfectly.

I approached him for a few comments on printing and his techniques, and was delighted when he took time to respond.


Field Pattern

Can you remember when you first started linocutting?

I was new to art and printmaking when I joined a workshop in Devon in 2010. I don’t use lino much – preferring vinyl flooring.

Which print artists influence(d) you?

I love the reduction linocuts of Ann Lewis and Ian Phillips, both in North Wales, as well as Monique Wales and William Hays in the US. But I’m also very involved with the work of other printmakers in Devon whose work I sometimes follow from conception to completion.

You mention on your site that your surroundings influence your work too…

I’m lucky enough to live in the Dartmoor National Park, in a wooded valley with moorland just up the hill. I do a lot of walking and just catch those moments – like sun on bleached grass and bracken against a dark sky, or a line of trees silhouetted by brightness behind. In the hinterland of the moor there are also many old and stately specimen trees, particularly oaks, in fields of pasture.


Two Oaks

Can you tell me a little bit about your printing set up – I’m guessing you’re not a bedroom printer?

I have a separate small room as a studio, with a Hawthorn press. It was a bedroom when we moved in, now it’s not! I’m limited for space and really need to raise the inking area so it doesn’t give me backache. It’s not ideal, but better than a lot of people have. It’s a mess, but I know where everything is.

How did you discover that you could use flooring linoleum?

It’s flooring vinyl, not lino, which I discovered at Dartington Printmakers’ Workshop when I started printmaking. It was what I started using and I’m still going with it.

What inks/paper do you use?

I use Caligo Safewash inks, as well as some true oil inks for metallic colours – silver and gold. I mostly use Somerset paper, which is made at St Cuthbert’s Mill in Wells. I started with Somerset Velvet white, but now prefer brilliant white, as it changes the colours less.

Presumably you would urge anyone to have a go with linocutting?

I think most forms of printmaking, but especially relief, are excellent for people new to art and making stuff. The whole theatre of it – cutting, inking, revealing the print – gives you so much, so much more quickly. It’s as if you immediately get a style from the medium. If you’d never drawn and drew something, it wouldn’t look as interesting/satisfying as a linocut version, in my opinion.

Do any man-made things ever inspire your prints?

Yes – particularly colours, textiles and ceramics.


Red Field

Your colours look perfection to me – how much time goes into working them out? 

Thank you – but I’ve never worked out colours fully and hardly ever do tests. I tend to just jump in with an idea – if it doesn’t work, I try something else.

What other mediums do you work in?

I’ve dabbled with collographs and drypoints, and also keep plodding on to improve my drawing. I’ve tried painting, but so far I just don’t bond with it.


For more information on Richard’s work, check out his site, and for details of the Dartington Printmakers Workshop, head over here.

Dan Howden: “The idea is far more important than the equipment at your disposal…”



There’s a guy up in York called Dan Howden who’s been taking linocutting – and specifically reduction linocutting – to more detailed and involved places than I could’ve ever imagined possible. And the dude is still so young.

I basically hate him.

No, I’m a lover not a fighter, but I wanted to try to figure out what motivates him. How does he get so much detail into his shots, what inspires him, what are his methods?

So, after not one but two profiles on the ultra-popular It’s Nice That website, I thought I’d see if he was up for an interview.

And lo, it came to pass. So thanks to Dan for his time and for battling the adversities of the dentist, a broken computer and a broken bike to get these responses back to me.




PP: Why did you get into linocutting, and what appeals to you about it?

DH: It was suggested to me on my foundation course in 2011, but initially I was stubborn and had no interest in perusing it. Back then I was really into painting inaccurate acrylic portraits of various footballers and Chris Martin. Eventually I saw the light, but by this time everybody had moved on, so I taught myself how to etch, and because of this, my approach to printmaking is fairly unorthodox.

I really appreciate the tangible quality of lino, and its tradition, too. It’s an old fashioned way of working and like many people I guess I find it therapeutic. There’s something satisfying about nailing a registration also.

Were there any other artists’ work you saw who inspired you then/now?

I’m ashamed to say it, but back in 2011 I was one of those Kanye-people who’d say ‘I inspire myself’. I’m not proud of that. I really appreciate(d) the work of Johnny Hannah, but when it came to my own, nothing external really seeped in.

These days I’m a lot more open and with platforms such as Instagram, it’s difficult not be inspired by others. I find I’m more motivated by colour palletes than work itself, specifically. Artists and animators such as Jake Longstreth and Assaf Benharroch are a constant source of inspiration, and in the world of lino, I look up to Christopher Brown.

Is there a printing ‘scene’ in York at all?

There is – much to my surprise! I’ve spent the past year back home in York taking a glorified ‘gap year’ and whilst doing so, took part in York Open Studios. It takes place annually in April and spans over a fortnight where exhibitors open up their houses/studios and the public can come and go. Art in York is really on the rise, and with the likes of Mark Hearld, Emma Sutton and Gerard Hobson all residing here, York’s doing alright.

What facilities do you use now your degree is over – are you printing at home or hiring space?

I print from home. My bedroom, to be exact. I was fairly fortunate in that I won a bursary at my end of year degree show that enabled me to buy a small print press. It’s heavy as hell; the heaviest thing I’ve ever tried to lift, so it’s kept in a room down the hall. I use that for anything with a limited colour palette. But most of my work contains over 50 layers and therefore I use a fairly unorthodox technique I mentioned before, which is really basic and only requires a desk and a washbasin nearby, which my room has. My biggest problem is the lack of space for prints to dry, and because of this, I rarely make over six of anything.

What sort of inks and paper do you use?

I use the most basic inks available. I’m a big believer that the idea/composition is far more important than the equipment at your disposal. I refer to them as secondary school standard inks as they’re really cheap, water soluble and they use them in secondary schools. But I love how vivid they are, with none of the mess, or the subsequent turps fumes required in order to wash them away.

Paper’s the only exception. I never used to care, but then I never used to sell. Now that I do from time to time, good paper’s high on my agenda. I use Somerset satin. It absorbs the ink really well, is reasonably priced and is the right level of thickness for my operation.


One Components

Are you printing most of the time, or do you have to fit it in around other less exciting things?

The goal is to one day do this 100% of the time, but I work part time throughout the week. The hours are as such that I get up at 6am, work till 1pm, go to ‘work’ at 2pm and then print a little more when I get back. Thank god for daylight bulbs! But before this year, I had no experience of balancing the two, so It’s been eye-opening.



I think the Halloween-headed people are my favourite characters in your works. What inspired them?

It’s my favourite holiday. I romanticise Halloween to a scary degree. There’s just something beautiful about one night a year, people dressing up and going door-to-do in the hope of leaving with sweets. I’m no longer of the age to participate, nor does it happen in my neighbourhood, so I guess I’m trying to hold onto my childhood. I really enjoy tackling darker subject matter through an innocent viewpoint, and I guess the Halloween characters are an example of that.

Your landscapes look as if they’re reduction prints, but how many layers do they typically have – it looks like loads…

They are, and they’re heavily reducted, so much so that often I’m left with something that no longer resembles a slab of lino. I didn’t used to keep count, as I could always tell by going through and counting the colours. The most I’ve ever done was 131 layers and that was on ‘Jacksons’. I made gifs of them for a period of time, but once they got past 70 images, Instagram wouldn’t let me upload them due to size. So I stopped. I’d say my York series was by far the most challenging.



Do you work from your own photos for your prints of buildings?

Yes. I always source my own images and take this really seriously. If I were to copy from an image off the internet, I wouldn’t have the same personal or emotional attachment to it that I would if I’d taken it myself and therefore the work would suffer.

But also, on the most basic level, I’d feel as though anyone else could’ve done it. What makes it personal is that the story behind them, and the knowledge that I’ve composed the shot, at that specific time of day and in that light. Sometimes it gets to me and I think, ‘I’m just copying from a photograph’, which is why I’m trying to get away from architecture for a while and use my imagination. But, that said, I like to have some fun with colour palettes I use creative licence.

What are your ambitions for linocutting – is there anywhere to take the work now you haven’t already?

That’s the $1,000,000 question. Like I said, I’m taking a break from architecture as I feel I’ve taken it as far as it can go for the time being. I’m about to study an MA in Illustration for a year, so maybe that’ll rejuvenate the process, but I intend to give it lots of thought. I enjoy capturing scenes from places I’ve been, but my imagination has some untapped potential and I’m eager to pursue that. I’ve been contemplating it for quite a while, but I’m really keen to transfer my heavily-layered approach to something fictional with no palette that I can draw reference from.

Finally, I notice you do private commissions – what’s your experience been like of working for a specific person’s goal?

I came away from uni a little under-prepared for what lay ahead. I received my first commission back in November 2015 and remember putting a lot of emphasis on how much time I should invest in it as I didn’t (and still don’t fully) understand how much my work is worth.

I spent weeks working on a concept, making a conscious effort to go above and beyond. I didn’t think about the pay, I just wanted my first commission to be a success. So, I communicated with, and involved, the editor as much as I possibly could, spamming them at all hours of the day.

Now, looking back, this was a terrible idea and our wires got crossed somewhere along the line. Long story short, the work I submitted was what I thought they wanted to see, but it wound up being politely rejected. I was furious at the time as I believed I’d done all they’d asked of me, but then, upon reflection I realised it was garbage and I set about doing it my own way, which eventually turned out fine. I learnt an awful lot from that. Working from someone else’s vision is hard.



Dan being excellent, you have to assume.

Find out more at Dan’s website.